Formulae

Thermodynamics

The thermodynamics describes the mechanisms of generating work by transforming energy from one state to another. The theory of thermodynamics was developed in the eighteenth century when the processes in thermal engines were investigated and the scientists succeeded in forming equations that could describe fundamental relations between the deciding parameters energy, volume, pressure and temperature. It was found out that heat and energy are fundamental quantities for the description of a thermodynamic system which led to the development of four laws of thermodynamics: The zeroth law introduces the temperature as state variable to describe the relation between different thermodynamic systems. The first law expresses that energy can not be generated but only can be converted from one state to another to generate work. This law means that a perpetuum mobile of the first kind is impossible. The second law states that heat does not flow from a colder body to a warmer body spontaneously which implies the impossibility of a perpetuum mobile of the second kind. The third law declares that it is impossible to reach the absolute zero of temperature since the entropy is zero at zero Kelvin.

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