In magnetism the phenomena which are related to the presence of a magnetic field are described. The source of the magnetic fields are moving electric charges. These charges can either be electrons in an electric conductor for example in an electromagnet. Another source for magnetic fields can be elementary spins of fundamental particles which lead to the magnetic fields in permanent magnets. A characteristic of magnetic fields is that the magnetic flux lines are closed since the magnetic field is solenoidal. The fundamental formulas which describe the relations between electric and magnetic fields are the Maxwell equations. According to the fundamental theory of forces, the magnetic force is not fundamental but can be derived from the electric force using the concept of relativity.

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